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New City Database

Stephen Goldsmith, a former mayor of Indianapolis, has launched a new
website to catalyze local government efforts to deploy data, analytics, and
civic engagement technologies that transform the way government operates.
The "Data-Smart City Solutions<
http://www.innovations.harvard.edu/redir.html?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdatasmart.ash.harvard.edu%2F>"
site and the broader campaign are housed at the Ash Center for Democratic
Governance and Innovation at the Harvard Kennedy School, the preeminent
voice for innovation in government.

The initiative is designed to offer city leaders a national depository of
working analytics methodologies and to connect leading industry, academic,
and government officials in the field.

Data-Smart City Solutions<
http://www.innovations.harvard.edu/redir.html?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdatasmart.ash.harvard.edu%2F>
will report fresh advances in the big data phenomenon, profiling big data
technology and municipal pioneers, and will present case histories …

The political/administrative dichotomy

Discuss in some detail the major theoretical perspectives listed below. In this discussion, first, identify the position of these perspectives towards the politics/administration dichotomy. Second, highlight the most important empirical propositions stemming from these theories and whether the research in the field supports these propositions.1.1. Political Control of Bureaucracy1.2. Representative Bureaucracy The study of the bureaucracy is at the heart of public administration, given that it is the organism that executes the policies created by the politicians. Theories of Political Control of Bureaucracy and Representative Bureaucracy originate from the foundational writings in the field—namely Wilson’s (1887) dichotomy of administration from politics and Waldo’s (1947) rebuttal statement that “Administration is politics.” Particularly these theories stem from how much influence politics has on the bureaucracy in the policy-making process. This essay will first provide the epistemol…

Muddling Through

In his seminal work, The Science of “Muddling Through” Charles E. Lindblom (1959) uses a systems approach to policy formation and suggests that a comparative approach could assist political scientist and policymakers to understand how decision-making happens. In his rebuttal to rational, scientific or mechanical processes, like cost-benefit analysis (CBA), Linblom suggests am incremental approach to understand decision-making. He attempts to describe how decisions are made through various methods of analysis including: the root vs. branch, evaluation and empirical analysis, ends vs. means, testing on hypotheses, non-comprehensive analysis of relevance vs. realism, but concludes that the small succession of events, incremental analysis often helps determine policies. Finally, he adds that while theorist search for the root of the problem and provide possible policy recommendations; practitioners need practical advice immediately on the job and may already be on a new topic when the a…