Annette Steinhacker, Loyola University, Chicago
Justin Phillips, Columbia University
Urban politics is particularly relevant to a conference organized
around the theme of Representation and Renewal. Cities have, for
decades, confronted the difficulties posed by globalization and the
movement of manufacturing jobs and middle class residents from urban
centers. After some promising revitalization in the late 1990s and early
2000s with increased immigrant populations and economic growth in
service and professional fields, central cities again are facing a time
of fiscal and economic challenges. The Great Recession has strained
municipal finances and service provision, while many cities along the
Gulf Coast continue to deal with the ravages of Hurricane Katrina.
State budget deficits are disrupting municipal finances and straining
Cities confront these and other
challenges in the context of racial, religious, and economic
diversity. This diversity presents its own set of opportunities and
challenges. While diversity is often noted for aiding in the innovation
necessary for economic renewal, it may also lead to greater tensions in
the civic and political realms. Immigrant entrepreneurs may revitalize
city neighborhoods and provide needed small businesses, but create new
challenges in political representation. Strategies to promote renewal
and representation may co-exist uneasily in larger cities. We invite
papers that address these issues. How have cities understood and
responded to the need for renewal? Which groups and interests have been
best represented when it comes to developing political and policy
responses to the challenges of globalization and the economic downturn?
What role have inter-governmental relations played in this process? Why
have some governments crafted more successful responses than others?
addition to papers addressing this year’s theme directly, we welcome
those that focus on other central concerns in the study of urban
politics. This includes, but is certainly not limited to, municipal
institutional reform, urban economic inequality and its consequences,
local elections, immigration and minority politics, and the politics of
land use. This call for papers welcomes a diverse array of
methodologies and papers in either an American or comparative context.
Friday, September 30, 2011
Tuesday, September 27, 2011
More Gloom Lies Ahead for Cities, Report Says
Published: September 27, 2011
Nearly a third of the nation’s cities are laying off workers this year. More than half have canceled or delayed infrastructure projects. And two out of five have raised their fees.
One of the main culprits is the property tax, which many cities and local governments rely on heavily. Property tax collections, which are usually quite resilient, are projected to fall by 3.7 percent this year — their second year in a row of declines — as tax assessments belatedly catch up with the lower property values left behind by the battered real estate market. Sales tax collections are projected to be slightly higher this year, but income tax collections are projected to be slightly lower, as unemployment and lower wages take their toll in many places.
“For cities, the collective impact of property values continuing at levels far below their 2007 peaks, consumer spending slowing, consumer confidence eroding and markets possibly entering a double-dip recession is the worst since the Great Depression,” according to the survey, a copy of which was obtained by The New York Times. The report raises the possibility that “lower property values and declining sales may portend something entirely new, a ‘new normal.’ ”
In what passes for a bright spot in an overwhelmingly gloomy report, the number of city finance officers who said their cities would be less able to meet their fiscal needs has dropped. This year 57 percent of the 272 finance officers surveyed said their cities would be less able to meet their needs than they were last year. In 2010, 87 percent said so. But the number was still high this year when it came to cities that rely heavily on property taxes: nearly three quarters said they were less able to meet their needs.
One of the report’s authors, Christopher W. Hoene, said many cities were still unsure if the worst was over. “The question is, are we going into the low point or are we emerging out of it?” said Mr. Hoene, director of the Center for Research and Innovation at the league of cities. “Right now, in the early fall of 2011, the answer to that question is unclear.”
Cities have been unable to look for help in some of the traditional places. Half of the cities reported that their state aid has been cut since 2009, as states struggled to balance their own budgets.
So many cities have resorted to service cuts. Two in five report cutting things like libraries and parks and recreation programs. Nearly a fifth are making cuts to public safety. Nearly three-quarters are cutting their personnel costs through hiring freezes, wage freezes or reductions, layoffs or reduced health benefits for their workers.
In recent days mayors from both parties have gone to Washington to speak in support of President Obama’s proposal to increase infrastructure spending and give more aid to states and cities, but the proposal is still deeply unpopular with Republicans in Congress.
With cities and states required to balance their budgets, city officials see the federal government as the one entity that can spend more money now to get them through the lingering downturn. The survey finds that the outlook for cities next year was not much brighter. “The effects of depressed real estate markets, low levels of consumer confidence and high levels of unemployment,” the report said, “will continue to play out in cities through 2011, 2012 and beyond.”
Friday, September 23, 2011
Sustainable Economic Development
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Environment, economy in Garden State. Brekke, Rhea. Forum for Applied Research and Public-Policy. 11, Winter. 1996
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Development Aid: The Poor Women’s Perspective: A Synopsis. Jhabvala, Renana. Ahmedabad, India: Self-Employed Women’s Association.
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The Economics of Developing Countries, 2nd ed. Nafziger, E. Wayne. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Global Environmental Politics. Porter, Gareth and Janet Welsh Brown. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.
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Local Economic Development: Analysis and Practice. Blair, John P. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 1995.
Microfinance for the Poor? Schneider, Hartmut. (ed.) Paris, France: Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1997.
Our Urban Future: New Paradigms for Equity and Sustainability. Badshah, Akhtar A. St. Martin's Press. 1996.
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Urban Policy and Economic Development: An Agenda for the 1990s. World Bank. 1995.
Vital Signs 1996: The Trends That Are Shaping Our Future. Brown, Lester R., Christopher Flavin, and Hal Kane. New York: Worldwatch Institute, 1996.
Foundation for International Community Assistance (FINCA)
Organizations and Websites
International Monetary Fund
Local Economic Development and Poverty Alleviation
The National Environmental Health Association
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