• Argentina: Governors elected since 1912 and mayors since the 1950s, except during authoritarian periods. Both elected since 1983. Local governments have strong powers.
• Bolivia: Governors first elected in 2005, mayors since 1985. Governors are fighting with President Evo Morales over spending authority.
• Brazil: Governors directly elected since 1982, mayors since 1946 except in large cities during authoritarian government 1964-85. Local governments have strong taxing and spending authority.
• Chile: Mayors elected since 1992. Regional governments are weak, while municipal governments have gained greater autonomy. But subnational share of total spending remains low.
• Colombia: State and local governments have much autonomy over social and economic policies. Mayors elected after 1989 and governors after 1990.
• Mexico: Local governments have strong powers.
• Peru: Governors first elected in 2002.
• Uruguay: Fiscal decentralization for municipalities began in 1985.
• Venezuela: Governors first elected in 1989, with growing fiscal and policy powers. Chávez has been recentralizing power since taking office in 1999.
Source: Alfred Montero of Carleton College